Cognition covers the arts of problem solving. The Logic field of study covers any activity that studies Reason in order to manifest the material. Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. Inference is studied within several different fields:

  • Human inference (i.e. how humans draw conclusions) is traditionally studied within the field of cognitive psychology.
  • Logic studies the laws of valid inference.
  • Statisticians have developed formal rules for inference from quantitative data.
  • Artificial intelligence researchers develop automated inference systems.